A clarinet quintet is a musical composition for the clarinet and a string quartet. The string quartet would consist of two violins, a viola and a cello. The composer would normally aim to combine and blend the sounds of the instruments, as is usual in chamber music, rather than treat the clarinet as a solo instrument. Clarinet quintets have been written by a number of composers, but those of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johannes Brahms feature most prominently in the repertoire of clarinetists into the early 21st century.
Mozart's clarinet quintet was the first notable work in this form and is generally considered to be one of the outstanding pieces in existence for clarinet. In this quintet, the clarinet is not a solo instrument but part of the ensemble. This reflects the way in which Mozart thought of the instrument. Mozart realized the smooth sound of the instrument suited it to use in combination with stringed instruments. In Mozart's time, the instrument was not present in all orchestras, but he became familiar with its sound during his travels.
In comparison to other woodwind instruments, the clarinet has a warmer sound. The instrument has a smoother, less reedy sound than the oboe and is more agile than other wind instruments when used, for example, in passages that quickly rise to a crescendo. It is, therefore, considered a most appropriate wind instrument to be combined with a string quartet in a quintet.
Carl Maria von Weber’s clarinet quintet, written in 1815, is rather different in style because the clarinet is treated as a solo instrument with the strings being more in the role of an accompaniment, as they would be in a clarinet concerto. This was not in line with the normal way of writing chamber music at the time. Weber was an operatic composer and this may account for his inclination to write a clarinet part that is the equivalent of a singer performing an aria.
Later in the 19th century, the most prominent example of a clarinet quintet was the work composed by Brahms in 1891. The main model for Brahms in writing this quintet was the earlier work by Mozart, because relatively few composers had written clarinet pieces in this form since the Mozart quintet. This was a mature work by Brahms, who had previously retired from composing, and the piece is often described as having an autumnal mood. The inspiration for Brahms in turning to a composition in the form of a clarinet quintet was the playing of clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld, who played the clarinet in the first private performance of the work.