The population of Canada has continued to increase for the last 150 years. Currently, the Canadian census is conducted every five years, but we have posted the historical populations at the beginning of each decade dating back to 1861. The population in Canada is expected to continue growing, but at a slower rate, as shown by the projections for 2011 and 2021.
Canada's population growth is attributable to immigration and to the birth rate exceeding the death rate. In the most recent Census, for example, the difference between the birth and death rates (natural increase) was 653,000 and the difference between immigration and emigration (net international migration) was 781,000. These two factors combined for an increase of almost 1.5 million new Canadian inhabitants between 1996 and 2001.