Distracted driving is operation of a motor vehicle without paying close attention to the road, resulting in an increased risk of experiencing an accident. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the United States estimates that as many as 25% of crashes annually are the result of distracted driving. In some jurisdictions, the motor vehicle code specifically addresses this issue and people can receive fines and citations for driving while distracted. Repeat violations may result in a suspension of someone's license.
There are three main types of distractions drivers may encounter on the road: manual, cognitive, and visual. Visual distractions include doing things like reading, trying to adjust a navigation system, or looking at something on the side of the road like an interesting building or sign. While people are not looking, they miss issues like drifting into the opposite lane, traffic slowdowns up ahead, and other threats to safety. Distracted drivers may also fail to spot people or animals crossing the road, and could hit them.
Manual distractions can involve operating the controls of a car, forcing the driver's hands off the wheel. Drivers may fiddle with radio or heating settings, or could engage in activities like eating, applying makeup, or adjusting clothes while driving. All of these distractions prevent drivers from controlling the wheel if there is a problem, and may put drivers in danger. Some car companies have tried to address this form of distracted driving by creating interactive voice interfaces, so people can adjust volume, change tracks or stations, and manage the climate control system without needing to touch anything.
When drivers experience cognitive distractions, they focus mentally on something other than driving. Cell phones are a common culprit, as are conversations in the car. Drawing the attention of the brain to tasks other than driving can make people unable to respond as quickly to events on the road, like cars stopping or a light changing. Awareness of the risk of cognitive distractions has led many nations to restrict or ban activities like cell phone use while driving in the interests of public safety.
Drivers who receive tickets for distracted driving may be able to attend traffic school and strike the ticket from their records, depending on policy and their driving history. Insurance rates will increase if people do not address the ticket, and can rise very high in the case of a distracted driving citation, as the insurance agency may be concerned that the driver will probably repeat the activity.