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What is a Union Suit?

Kristen Osborne
Kristen Osborne

A union suit is a one-piece under-garment that dates back to the mid to late 1800s. They were invented in Utica, New York as an alternative for constrictive women's underwear. Despite this, union suits traditionally have been worn by men, typically to stay warm while farming, hunting, hiking, camping or doing any other type of outdoor activity. They are known, in particular, for the buttoned flap in the rear that allows the wearer to use the bathroom without having to take off the union suit.

Initially, union suits were made from red flannel, but in 1906, New York-based Duofold Health Underwear Co. patented a two-layered fabric that “doesn't overheat you on a mild day or in a warm room; yet it is a perfect safegaurd against the severest weather.” The blend comprised a cotton linen or silk inner layer and an outer layer made from wool, silk or silkaline, which is a type of cotton that looks similar to silk. Today, union suits can be found in various colors and fabrics, including silk and polar fleece. Shades of white, gray and blue are popular colors, and patterned union suits can be found in stripes or even camoflauge. For women's union suits, solid pink and floral patterns are common. They usually are long-sleeved and long-legged and feature a line of buttons from the neck down to the crotch. Short-sleeved variations are available as well.

Man with hands on his hips
Man with hands on his hips

Until the mid-1900s, it was common for men to wear the same union suit for a week or more, or even an entire winter. Today, union suits are favorites of outdoors enthusiasts who say this type of underwear can be warmer and less constricting than two-piece long underwear, or long-johns. The popular footed pajamas worn by children, and even some adults, are a variation on the union suit. They generally have zippers instead of buttons and the fabric tends to be thicker and fluffier than that used to make union suits.

Union suits also have comic appeal and have been worn in movies and television shows, such as Laurel and Hardy sketches and other comedies, including cartoons. The comic references are usually of men who have lost all of their clothes for some reason and have nothing left to wear but their union suit. An example is an oft-referenced scene where a man has lost everything gambling and thus has nothing to wear but his union suit and, perhaps, a barrel over top. There is also some toilet-humor associated with the union suits, due to the rear flap. Modern popular references to union suits can be found in movies Cold Mountain and The Wild Wild West and television shows Rugrats and Family Guy.

Discussion Comments


At night, men wore their union suits, and long nightshirts over them in the winter. Women did the same thing. They did have a practical use in the days before central heating.

I've worn two-piece long underwear, but never a union suit. I don't know that I would, but my area doesn't have really, really cold winters, either. I don't know how anyone wore them in wool, though, or wore them throughout the winter without washing them. The smell must have been rank. There's something to be said for living in the 21st century, where most people change their underwear every day.


The wisdom of the union suit is very apparent when you think about what women wore, as far as undergarments, during this period, and they were worn until at least the 1920s, by both sexes, especially in colder climates.

In 1855, for instance, when hoopskirts were huge, a woman would wear a thin cotton chemise, with a corset over it. She wore short "bloomers" as panties, and frequently, pantalets over those, then a petticoat, her hoops, and two or three more petticoats before the actual dress went on. It was an undertaking. A union suit would have taken the place of the drawers and pantalets, at least. Corsets were kind of a given, though.

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