Responsibility for various aspects of government is typically assigned to specific departments that are headed by senior politicians. In Australia, the United States, Great Britain and various other countries these departmental leaders are known as secretaries. While duties and job descriptions vary between nations, the department secretary jobs typically include a secretary of labor, defense, and industry. Many countries also have secretary of home affairs and of foreign relations department secretary jobs as well. With the exception of defense and foreign affairs, many regions within large nations also have secretaries who handle these same departments but at a local level.
The secretary for labor is responsible for managing the government's efforts to reduce unemployment. Additionally, the person employed in this job must handle matters related to worker's rights such as the level of the minimum wage or the maximum workweek. Among the various department secretary jobs, the labor secretary often has the most direct interaction with the business community since the person in this role has to balance the needs of major corporations with the needs of individual taxpayers.
Many nations also have a department of industry, and the secretary of this department represents the interests of domestic companies on the international scene. The roles of the labor and industry department often overlap when countries are negotiating free trade agreements. Additionally, some nations also have a commerce secretary who handles financial matters while the industry secretary focuses more on legal issues.
Someone appointed to serve as the secretary of defense is responsible for managing the nation's armed services budget. This individual works closely with senior military officials to ensure that the nation is adequately protected and that forces have been suitably deployed to address possible threats. Due to the nature of the role, the defense secretary job is one of the most important of all the department secretary jobs since the person in this job has a major role to play in safeguarding the nation.
The home secretary or secretary of state is responsible for managing the day-to-day affairs of a nation. This individual liaises with lawmakers and the justice department on matters related to law and order. A home secretary often is often the second most senior member of government behind the president or prime minister. Therefore, individuals serving in this role often handle matters of state when the most senior politician is absent or otherwise engaged.
A foreign secretary is tasked with managing international relations. During times of war, the secretary works closely with the secretary of defense and during peacetime this individual promotes trade with the assistance of the secretary of industry or commerce. Unlike people unemployed in other department secretary jobs, the foreign secretary spends the majority of time overseas.