The parts of a trumpet are built around the basic elements of the mouthpiece, leadpipe and bell. Valves, valve casings and pistons control the pitch of musical notes. A tuning slide allows for the proper tuning of the instrument. One-handed play is made possible by a finger hook. Accumulated moisture is vented by means of a spit valve.
A mouthpiece is one of the parts of a trumpet that it has in common with other brass instruments. There are various mouthpiece designs that allow for different musical effects. In each, the player blows through closed lips into the mouthpiece. This produces a standing, or stationary, wave vibration within the instrument's tubing.
The trumpet's leadpipe is the tube between the mouthpiece and the tuning slide. As is true with all instruments, a trumpet cannot be permanently tuned to perfect pitch. The tuning slide allows adjustments to be made by slightly extending or retracting its length. In what is termed regular construction, the tuning slide is between the leadpipe and the valve casings.
Of all the parts of a trumpet, the bell may be the most important in producing its distinctive sound. The rate of increase in the diameter of a bell is known as its flare. Large flares produce a mellow sound, while smaller flare results in a sharper, brassy tone. Though typically made of brass, a trumpet's bell can also be modified by plating or lacquering. Silver-plated bells produce a lighter sound, while those lacquered in gold tend to have a richer tone.
In place of a tuning slide, a few trumpet designs make use of a tuning bell. These removable bells attach to the trumpet just beyond the valve casing. The instrument is tuned by sliding the bell in or out from its interface. Since they are detachable, the sound of the instrument can be altered by replacing the bell with one of different flare or component material.
Valve casings, pistons and slides are the parts of a trumpet that produce the individual notes within its harmonic range. The three cylinders that contain the pistons are the valve casings. When a piston is depressed, air is routed through the valve slides. This increases the overall length of the tubing and produces a lower pitch note. Each valve produces a distinct change in pitch bot individually and in combination with one another.
The finger hook is one of the parts of a trumpet that has no direct musical purpose. It is included to allow easier one-handed play while turning music sheets with the other. This allows the musician to maintain proper finger position over the valves. Another non-musical but very useful part is the spit valve, allowing for the easy purging of accumulated saliva.