We are independent & ad-supported. We may earn a commission for purchases made through our links.
Advertiser Disclosure
Our website is an independent, advertising-supported platform. We provide our content free of charge to our readers, and to keep it that way, we rely on revenue generated through advertisements and affiliate partnerships. This means that when you click on certain links on our site and make a purchase, we may earn a commission. Learn more.
How We Make Money
We sustain our operations through affiliate commissions and advertising. If you click on an affiliate link and make a purchase, we may receive a commission from the merchant at no additional cost to you. We also display advertisements on our website, which help generate revenue to support our work and keep our content free for readers. Our editorial team operates independently of our advertising and affiliate partnerships to ensure that our content remains unbiased and focused on providing you with the best information and recommendations based on thorough research and honest evaluations. To remain transparent, we’ve provided a list of our current affiliate partners here.

What Are Proinflammatory Cytokines?

Andrew Kirmayer
Updated Feb 09, 2024
Our promise to you
WiseGeek is dedicated to creating trustworthy, high-quality content that always prioritizes transparency, integrity, and inclusivity above all else. Our ensure that our content creation and review process includes rigorous fact-checking, evidence-based, and continual updates to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Our Promise to you

Founded in 2002, our company has been a trusted resource for readers seeking informative and engaging content. Our dedication to quality remains unwavering—and will never change. We follow a strict editorial policy, ensuring that our content is authored by highly qualified professionals and edited by subject matter experts. This guarantees that everything we publish is objective, accurate, and trustworthy.

Over the years, we've refined our approach to cover a wide range of topics, providing readers with reliable and practical advice to enhance their knowledge and skills. That's why millions of readers turn to us each year. Join us in celebrating the joy of learning, guided by standards you can trust.

Editorial Standards

At WiseGeek, we are committed to creating content that you can trust. Our editorial process is designed to ensure that every piece of content we publish is accurate, reliable, and informative.

Our team of experienced writers and editors follows a strict set of guidelines to ensure the highest quality content. We conduct thorough research, fact-check all information, and rely on credible sources to back up our claims. Our content is reviewed by subject-matter experts to ensure accuracy and clarity.

We believe in transparency and maintain editorial independence from our advertisers. Our team does not receive direct compensation from advertisers, allowing us to create unbiased content that prioritizes your interests.

Cytokines are molecules of protein that help regulate the body’s immune response to infections and trauma. Some promote the healing of wounds, while others, such as proinflammatory cytokines, increase inflammation and can cause diseases to progress. Interleukin and tumor necrosis factor are substances in the immune system that promote inflammation. If they are injected, the result is usually fever and inflammation throughout the body. Some researchers believe the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the body might be how the immune system is kept in check.

Typically released when cells are under stress, cytokines are proteins that don’t have a defined structure. They are sometimes compared to hormones but are not just made by specific cells, but are synthesized by almost all types. Contact with a foreign material, extreme heat, and exposure to ultraviolet light can increase production. A few substances can suppress genes that code for proinflammatory cytokines, such as some types of interleukin and interferon. Genes of those sometimes contain codes for enzymes involved in platelet activation and production of nitric oxide.

Proinflammatory cytokines also include chemokines that can let immune cells called leukocytes get from the blood into infected tissues. Other such cytokines activate molecules that can attach to the blood vessel walls to let immune cells pass through. In general, proinflammatory cytokines start off a cascading immune response that starts with an injury, infection, oxygen starvation, or exposure to toxic substances.

Some researchers believe that the balance of cytokines directly affects how someone will recover from a disease. Genes that help express anti- or proinflammatory cytokines can also impact a person’s susceptibility to a disease, such as arthritis or chronic inflammation of the bowels. The cytokines themselves trigger activity by linking to a receptor on the cell surface. A direct connection can affect the regulation of genes inside the cell and the production of receptors that accept certain molecules.

Proinflammatory cytokines are often involved in wound repair processes, such as stimulating skin cells like keratinocytes and collagen producing cells called fibroblasts. They can also break down proteins while regulating the response of the immune system at the same time. Blocking the regulation of certain proinflammatory cytokines can affect the scarring of wounds, and has even led to death in many laboratory animals. Since production occurs in a cascade along with other processes, an imbalance can lead to many diseases and conditions involving inflammation and problems with wound healing.

WiseGeek is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Andrew Kirmayer
By Andrew Kirmayer
Andrew Kirmayer, a freelance writer with his own online writing business, creates engaging content across various industries and disciplines. With a degree in Creative Writing, he is skilled at writing compelling articles, blogs, press releases, website content, web copy, and more, all with the goal of making the web a more informative and engaging place for all audiences.
Discussion Comments
Andrew Kirmayer
Andrew Kirmayer
Andrew Kirmayer, a freelance writer with his own online writing business, creates engaging content across various...
Learn more
WiseGeek, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.

WiseGeek, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.