Tool offset is a calculation an operator must make when machining parts or cutting materials like wood to compensate for varying tool lengths, shapes, and dimensions. The goal of applying the tool offset is to make sure machining and cutting are within the desired tolerances. Many machines can calculate this automatically, with some prompting from the operator, reducing the risk of error and making it easier to work with various tool attachments, as many store these values and allow people to reuse them in the future.
Failure to compensate for changes in tool size and shape could result in issues like drilling too deeply, cutting something at the wrong angle, or making a hole too large. When people prepare to machine parts, they need to think about the best tool for the job, and how to adjust the equipment to make sure it works properly. Other considerations affecting tool offset can include gradual wear on tools, which can change the way they perform, along with displacement of tools caused by vibration.
To manually adjust tool offset, people have screws and other devices they can move to change the position of a tool. In a simple example, a person working with a drill bit can move the bit forward or back. Likewise, a person operating a press could adjust a screw to exert less pressure, reducing the risk of damaging the machine or its components. Electronic tool offset adjustments are available with computerized equipment, where people can push buttons to activate preset offsets, or program a new one for a specific application.
While setting up a tool offset to compensate for changes in tool size and shape, the machine should not be in operation, as this would put people at the risk of injury. On large equipment with multiple operators, people may activate a switch lock to prevent someone else from turning the equipment on while they are making adjustments. People learning to use heavy equipment will receive information about offsets and how to change the system to accommodate different kinds of tools and working materials.
Learning to manage tool offsets can be a lengthy process. People often have an opportunity to practice with scrap materials so they can learn more about the parameters of a machine and the available tools without damaging materials needed for jobs. They can use practice to see how changing the angle or position of a tool can radically change the way it performs on the job and to learn more about the specific uses particular tools are designed for.