Timbre is a term for specific qualities of sound, usually applied to musical sounds. Many people refer to timbre as “sound quality,” because differences in this category of sound can create more appealing results. This term for sound quality is generally applied to sounds that have a musical tone, rather than percussion or other less tonal sounds.
Many people confuse timbre with the frequency or pitch of musical tones. Although musicians and others often speak of specific musical notes as tones, the sound quality called tone sometimes applies to a specific point on a musical scale. Beginners can think of this as the common musical scale “do re mi fa…” or the conventional letter scale for music: A, B, C, D, E, F, G. These and other smaller incremental changes are referred to as tone or pitch changes.
For many who are not heavily involved in music theory, timbre is a general term for how a particular instrument or voice sounds. Some people will analyze it by the treble and base components, or the high and low registers, of a particular instrument sound. Others will use advanced physics concepts to analyze timbre.
According to the physics of sound, some technical aspects of timbre include harmonic content, tremolo, or vibrato, and something called the attack-delay envelope. To understand the attack-delay envelope, it’s helpful to see the musical sound represented by a wave pattern in a software application. Here, those who are looking at sound timbres for the first time can see how specific sounds generate wider waves at different points. For example, a cymbal sound may have a wider wave at the beginning or in the “attack” of the sound.
Harmonic content can also be represented in wave forms of sounds. In general, harmonics relate to a fundamental frequency for sounds. All of this involves highly technical evaluations of sounds, where less experienced listeners will usually judge the timbres of sounds by certain analog or basic factors, such as whether the music sounds “tinny” or “nasal” in a treble range, or “muddy” or “booming” in a bass range.
Musicians can evaluate timbre for many different reasons. They can do it to try to match the right instrument to a piece of music, where a brass horn or other instrument choice sounds better than others. They can also use timbre as part of an assessment of an individual instrument available for purchase, or for one that has developed a crack or other defect in need of repair. Talking about the timbres of sounds is often practical in a studio environment as well, as mutes and other devices and techniques can be use to modify the normal timbre of a particular instrument.