The Tower of London is a historic castle complex located on the banks of the Thames River in London, England. It has served a number of functions historically, ranging from a prison for high profile prisoners, including Elizabeth I, to a permanent home for the Crown Jewels of England. The Tower complex is open to visitors, and there are a number of displays of historic interest on the site. Many visitors to London enjoy making the complex a stop on their visit.
The formal name of the Tower is Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress the Tower of London, although this name is a bit of a misnomer, since there are actually a number of towers on the complex. Perhaps the most famous is the White Tower, which was constructed in the middle of the site by William the Conqueror in 1078. Fortifications were added by both Richard the Lionheart and Henry III, creating the complex of walls, tower, and moating that visitors can see today. Henry III also turned part of the structure into a Royal Residence, although it is no longer used for this purpose.
The Tower of London is perhaps one of the most famous fortifications in London because of its long and complex history. It is probably best known for its function as a prison and execution site for prisoners of high rank. Many of these prisoners were brought to the Tower through Traitor's Gate, an entrance at water level of the Thames which allows people to be discreetly brought in without attracting public attention. Many prisoners spent extended periods of time in the Tower, and a number of their writings and drawings from these periods can be seen on display there.
Hangings were carried out on Tower Hill, an elevated site to the Northwest of the site. Some executions were carried out within the Tower complex; Anne Boleyn, for example, was executed on Tower Green. Undoubtedly, the walls were at one point used to display the heads of executed criminals, a common practice in the Middle Ages.
In the 1300s, the Tower of London also became the official holding place for the Crown Jewels. It also briefly served as a menagerie, a mint, and an armory. Money and gold bullion were also stored there, presumably because it is extremely secure.
Two features of the Tower often stand out to guests. One is the traditional guard, the Beefeaters, who are responsible for guarding the complex and providing assistance to visitors. The Beefeaters often lead tours for guests. Another distinctive feature is the ravens found on the site. The birds are said to be a symbol of the British Monarchy; allegedly, the Monarchy will fall if the ravens fly away.