The primary somatosensory cortex is a region of the brain where nerve signals from the sense of touch are normally received. It is generally located in a part of the brain called the parietal lobe, in a structure called the post central gyrus. A gyrus is a ridge along the surface of the brain; there are typically several of them on the cerebral cortex, or the outer part of the brain, that increase the surface area. The cortex is also in back of the central sulcus, a groove on the surface of the brain. Nerve stimuli from all parts of the body are received in specific places in the primary somatosensory cortex, while the body is represented by a type of map called a homunculus.
Body parts are mapped out in this area, but areas that are most sensitive have the most receptors, such as the face and hands. Nerve cells called neurons are more abundant in areas representing sensitive parts of the body. There are usually fewer neurons associated with the torso and legs than the face and hands in this part of the brain.
Three subsections called Brodmann areas generally make up the primary somatosensory cortex. This area also typically contains four sub maps, with columns of nerve cells representing particular areas of the body. These cells can reorganize if a body part is amputated, for example, and the neurons usually then respond when other areas are touched. Nerve input to the somatosensory area generally comes from a structure deeper inside the brain called the thalamus.
The primary somatosensory cortex isn’t the only area that can receive input from the senses. Another area called the secondary somatosensory cortex typically is where nerve signals travel to from the primary area. Nerve processing here is generally not as accurate because the cells are not as specific to the parts of the body. Information from both sections goes to a different place called the somatosensory association cortex; associations between different senses are often processed here. If this area is damaged, a person can touch something, feel it, but not be able to figure out what it is.
Scientists first mapped the primary somatosensory cortex in the 1950s. During brain surgery, surgeons could stimulate parts of the brain and see where a patient felt something. The locations of different body parts, and the proportion to which they are represented, can be seen by directly stimulating the brain and recording the neurological response.