The Occupational Health and Safety Act is a United States federal law aimed at regulating safety in the workplace. The act was passed in 1970 to make sure that employers provide a safe and nontoxic environment for their employees in order to prevent work-related illnesses, injuries, and fatalities. The United States Department of Labor established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1971 to set safety standards and oversee state compliance with the act. Each state has the right to create its own workplace health and safety regulations, as long as they are approved by the OSHA.
The standards set by the Occupational Health and Safety Act can depend on the type of industry. There are four major industry categories under the act: construction, maritime, agriculture, and general industry. Since each of these industries have different job requirements and procedures, there may be standards that only apply to certain industries. For instance, industries that are considered to be low-hazard environments by the OSHA, such as real estate, service, finance, or retail, have more lax safety rules.
All industry employers must inform employees of any hazardous materials they may come into contact with as part of their work duties. They also have to give safety training on how to properly use any equipment, as well as supply employees with protective gear. If any accidents occur in the work environment that cause employee hospitalization or death, the employer is required by law to notify the OSHA within eight hours.
Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, workers have the right to report any dangerous or unsanitary conditions in their workplaces to the OSHA. When an employee files an official complaint with the OSHA, an inspector will conduct an investigation. If an employer is found to not be following the provisions of the act, he or she can be subjected to financial penalties. The act prohibits employers from discriminating against workers who report conditions to the OSHA. The agency will assist an employee with legal action if an employer is discriminating against an employee for contacting the OSHA.
The Occupational Health and Safety Act applies to all 50 states, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and all United States territories. Some industries, such as nuclear plants, transportation, and mining, have specific safety regulations set by other federal laws rather than the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Farms that are run only by family members are not regulated by the act, and neither are those who are self-employed.