The Geneva Convention refers to several treaties agreed upon by the international community regarding the fair treatment of prisoners of war, civilians in a war-afflicted country and the treatment of the injured during wartime. The first Geneva International Conference took place in 1863, and was a response to the founding of the International Red Cross. It was largely inspired initially by the written work of Henri Dunant, and his humanitarian efforts during the Battle of Solferino in Italy.
Seeing the appalling number of wounded during and after the battle, Dunant organized many of the civilians of the town to help the soldiers medically. He further stipulated that help should be given to the wounded without regard to what “side” they had fought on. Dunant’s written description of his efforts in Solferino inspired the formation of the Red Cross, and one of the first of the Geneva Convention treaties.
Since that first meeting, additional meetings have resulted in four treaties that make up the Geneva Convention, and three protocols. Not all countries have signed the Geneva Convention treaties, and clearly some countries flagrantly violate the treaties in times of war. Some countries sign the Geneva Convention with reservations or declarations, but most countries sign the treaties without dispute.
The principals of the Geneva Convention are the following:
The basic principals of the Geneva Convention also extend in particular to treating wounded soldiers at sea. Further, hospitals must be marked with a red cross and in plain sight so they will not be attacked. More particulars exist, but primarily these treaties exist so that captured or wounded soldiers can be treated humanely, and without prejudice.
Those who sign the treaties of the Geneva Convention and break them are guilty of war crimes and may be tried accordingly. Such trials take place in a world court, like that of Slobodan Milošević's. These trials are normally as public as possible to ensure that impartiality in judgment exists. Being convicted of severe war crimes tends to result in execution.