Prison labor is work done by people who have been imprisoned for a crime. This practice is common in many countries, but the type of labor performed and its intended effect on the inmates often varies. For many facilities, prison labor is used to provide inmates with stimulating activities, valuable job skills, and possible way of earning money. This labor can be used explicitly as a way to punish inmates or to help complete projects that are a benefit to the community or correctional facility.
It was once common in many areas for prisoners to be put to somewhat meaningless work as a direct form of punishment. Going through the motions of labor was intended to be physically grueling and mentally deadening. Common tasks included grinding grain, pushing mills, and breaking rocks. While all of these tasks could be slightly useful, they were almost always assigned for specific punitive capabilities.
In modern prisons where labor is permitted, it is much more common for prisoners to be put to productive work. Wasting inmate effort on tasks that could be done better by machine is not as economical as putting prisoners to work in ways that benefit the prison. A large number of prisons do not pay inmates and consider work to be mandatory. Some prisons do pay the inmates, and many offer this labor as an option for those who in good standing to get out of their cells.
Almost any kind of labor can be performed by inmates, but prisons usually only allow prisoners to work on projects that cannot result in dangerous activities and that do not involve contact with the outside world. For instance, the production of desks, license plates, or components of larger items are all common uses of prison labor. Some prisons allow inmates to work a phone job, but generally with the understanding that the inmate must not reveal his or her location. There are also often jobs for inmates that serve the prison itself, such as working in the laundry room or as a cook. Special inmates may find themselves with more desirable jobs, such as working as the prison librarian.
There are some concerns about the rights of inmates who work at hard labor camps and arguments that this labor is little more than legalized slavery. Consumers who are concerned about the moral impact of the products they buy must be very careful not to purchase those made by prisoners interned at hard labor camps, because unlike more moderate low cost prison labor, these jobs clearly constitute human rights violations.