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Juvenile court is a court that handles cases involving individuals who are under the legal age of adulthood. This court handles delinquency cases, which are those in which a juvenile is accused of some type of crime. Juvenile court also handles child protection matters, which are also referred to as dependency cases.
In juvenile court, delinquency matters may involve a wide range of law violations, including those that aren’t considered criminal acts if performed by adults. For example, a minor may end up in court after being picked up by police for shoplifting or assault and battery. He may, however, also be referred to a juvenile court if he is truant or runs away from home. Minors may even face court proceedings after violating curfew or repeatedly disobeying their parents. Juvenile court is a likely destination for a child who is considered to be continuously defiant and out of control.
In most places, a person’s family members cannot refer him to court, at least if he’s an adult. A minor may end up in court after his parents refer him, however. Even some school officials may refer minors to court. Like adults, however, a minor may also end up in court after he has been accused or caught in the act of a crime.
Besides the fact that a minor can end up in court for things that aren’t crimes in adulthood, a minor’s case is often handled differently as well. For example, adults are typically arrested for their crimes. A juvenile, on the other hand, may simply be taken into custody and then questioned. If the juvenile does have to appear in juvenile court, his case is usually heard by a judge. Most places do not give juveniles jury trials, at least for most crimes.
A juvenile court may consider many factors in deciding the course of justice. A court may consider circumstances surrounding the act and whether or not the juvenile has a previous history of delinquency. A judge may also consider school records and even medical history when deciding how to handle a minor’s case.
There are some cases in which a minor may end up in adult court instead of juvenile court. For example, if a minor is accused of committing murder, some jurisdictions allow him to be tried in adult court. Usually, this is reserved for minors who are at least in their teen years and have willfully committed serious acts.