Celibacy is a choice to remain unmarried and practice sexual abstinence. People may choose celibacy for a wide range of reasons and it is practiced in many cultures around the world. A common misconception about celibacy is that it is always religiously motivated. In fact, people can have many reasons to choose a celibate lifestyle. While religion can play a role, some people who are celibate are not choosing to be so for religious reasons.
The term “celibate” literally refers to remaining unmarried and is commonly taken to mean being sexually abstinent as well, a reflection of cultural beliefs that sexual intercourse should only appear within the context of a marriage. People who remain celibate may share this belief or may choose abstinence for other reasons. This term also specifically refers to a lifelong choice, rather than a period of sexual abstinence that occurs at some point during a person's life.
In some religions, it is believed that members of the clergy should remain celibate to strengthen their connection to the faith and to better serve the faith. Other religions may believe that people who are celibate are in closer connection with divine powers, or that celibacy can be a purifying choice. In religion, there is a strong stress on voluntary celibacy. People who cannot come freely to celibacy may struggle with it later in life.
Outside of religious contexts, celibacy may be practiced because someone is uninterested in sex and marriage, because it suits a person's lifestyle, and for other reasons. Historically, some social movements advocated celibacy for their members, although many were unpopular as a result. There may be cases in which people become celibate out of fear, such as fear of emotional intimacy or sexually transmitted infections. In these situations, receiving counseling may help people address these fears so they can decide whether they want to remain celibate.
People sometimes use the term “involuntary celibacy” to describe periods of time where they are unable to find romantic partners and are forced to practice sexual abstinence by circumstances, rather than choice. This term is a bit of a misnomer because a key aspect of celibacy is the choice to refrain from sexual activity, and the decision to make that choice for life. A temporary period when someone does not have sexual intercourse is a rather different matter, as presumably the person looks forward to resuming sexual relationships in the future.