Eye astigmatism is a common condition that affects the vision. When a person has an eye astigmatism, his cornea is irregularly curved and the condition is called a refractive error. Most people have some level of astigmatism, and it often requires no treatment. When there is a high amount of curvature, however, treatment is necessary.
Astigmatism can affect people at any age. It may even go undetected at first and then be discovered during a routine eye exam. This is because it can grow worse with time. Frequently, school-age children have astigmatism that isn't detected right away. It may be discovered as it worsens.
To understand how eye astigmatism works, it helps to consider the normal shape of the eye. Usually, an eye is shaped like a sphere. With this shape, the eye refracts light evenly, and clear vision is the result. A person with astigmatism, however, is more likely to have a football-shaped eye. With this shape, entering light is unevenly refracted, and the vision is obstructed.
To a person with eye astigmatism, objects may appear blurry, no matter how close or far away they are. A person with this condition may experience headaches and eyestrain as well. An eye examination can reveal whether or not a person has eye astigmatism. Often, the condition is found along with other types of vision problems. For example, people with eye astigmatism may also be nearsighted or farsighted.
A person's level of eye astigmatism can increase over time. For this reason, yearly eye exams by an optometrist or ophthalmologist are required. Treatment may vary, depending on the amount of astigmatism a person has. A person with only a slightly irregular corneal curvature may not even need corrective lenses. However, a person with a significant amount of astigmatism will likely need corrective lenses, which can be either glasses or contact lenses.
A person with this visual condition will need special corrective lenses that are called toric lenses; they bend light more in one particular direction, correcting astigmatism. Some people may opt for refractive surgery instead of corrective lenses. Such surgery can alter the shape of a person's cornea, fixing eye astigmatism permanently. There are several types of refractive surgery that may help a person with this condition, including laser eye surgery. Each person may be better suited to a different type of eye surgery, and an optometrist or ophthalmologist is qualified to evaluate a patient and suggest one.