After-tax income is the amount of money that a company or an individual worker has after all taxes have been deducted from the company's or person's taxable income. There are a number of types of taxes that can be deducted from one's income including federal taxes, state taxes, and withholding taxes. Another term for after-tax income is "income after taxes." When the term is applied to individuals instead of companies, it is sometimes called "take-home pay".
The amount of money that a person or company has in after-tax income is the amount that can be spent on present expenses and investments or can be allocated to a savings plan. This is also sometimes called "disposable income" because it can be spent at will. However, it is quite common for many people to have to spend most of their after-tax income on their rent or mortgage, utility bills, cost of food, and cost of transportation, among other daily expenses.
In order to properly assess cash flow, it is important for both individuals and companies to consider their after-tax income, not the amount of money that they make prior to taxes. Without taking taxes into account, finance projections can be incorrect by a wide margin and can lead to financial troubles later on. Without considering after-tax income, spending and saving projections will include monetary figures that are larger — much larger in some cases — than the amount of money that the person or company will actually have on hand after taxes have been deducted.
There are some deductions to income that are not taxes, such as deductions for health care plans and retirement plans. Deductions for retirement plans are sometimes deducted on a pretax basis. This means that the person will not pay taxes on the money as it is invested in the retirement plan. However, the money will be taxed when it is withdrawn in the future. For people who have these sorts of deductions to their paychecks, it is important to consider their income after both taxes and these sorts of savings deductions for all of the same reasons described above.
For most people, it is quite easy to calculate after-tax income. Many companies give their employees paychecks that include information on all of the deductions. The paychecks will show both pre-tax income and after-tax income. This way the employee can project after-tax income on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis.