A supermodel is a highly elite fashion model who has attained celebrity status. As a general rule, only women become supermodels, although there are a few very high powered male models in the fashion industry. Supermodels are generally famous enough to be considered household names, with most people at least knowing that someone like Heidi Klum is a supermodel, even if they can't tell you which labels she works for.
The term “supermodel” appears to have been coined in the 1940s, but it really took off in the 1980s, when the fashion industry exploded and several women took advantage of this flourishing to become major names. Twiggy, Christie Brinkley, Kate Moss, Claudia Schiffer, Naomi Campbell, Gisele Bündchen, and Elle Macpherson are commonly considered to be supermodels, along with several other famous models.
As a general rule, a woman is considered to be a supermodel when she commands a high salary with a large number of perks, and when she has a widespread reputation in the fashion industry. Supermodels tend to work only for the top labels in the industry, and they often receive hefty endorsement contracts, thanks to their fame. Supermodels are also famous enough to be featured on magazine covers, and some may branch out into film; many also have their own lines of branded fashion products.
In addition to being famous, supermodels are also famously perceived as being extremely high maintenance. Many are well aware of their status and earning power, and they are not afraid to push for very high-paying contracts and schedules which suit their needs. It is also necessary to be pushy and strong to get ahead in the fashion industry, and these traits can make a supermodel seem like an extremely aggressive women.
In the 1990s, the era of the supermodel appeared to be waning. Many fashion designers were turning to unknown models to promote their clothing, out of fear that supermodels would distract viewers from their designs; the typically high pay needed to retain a supermodel may also have become an issue for some designers. Supermodels also began to vie with actresses and singers for celebrity.
Numerous criticisms of supermodels and modeling culture have been made. Many people feel that supermodels represent a highly unrealistic beauty standard, and that more natural looking models would be better role models, especially for young women. Haute couture and the fashion industry are also regularly criticized for their notorious high prices and elitism, with some people suggesting that high fashion is out of place in an egalitarian society.