The Japanese privet is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is classified within the Oleaceae plant family. It features large clusters of white flowers and pear-shaped leaves that are pointed. Several types of insects feed on the leaves including whiteflies and nematodes. This shrub is commonly used as a hedge or as a specimen plant. It is adaptable to different types of soil and generally grows at a fast rate.
Botanically, the Japanese privet is known as Ligustrum japonicum. This species has several cultivars, or varieties, including nobilis, recurvifolium, and texanum. Nobilis is more resistant to cold weather than the Japanese privet, and texanum is more compact and has denser foliage.
As its name suggests, the Japanese privet is native to Japan. It also populates the Korean Peninsula. Many of the varieties have been introduced to Europe and North America.
Generally, the Japanese privet grows 6-12 feet (about 2-4 m) in height. It has a thin bark that holds up a dense growth. The foliage consists of dark-green leaves that feature six to eight pairs of veins. Rotundifolium is a smaller variety that grows about 5 feet (1.5 m) in height. Its leaves are more rounded than the Japanese privet, and its compact form is ideal for hedges.
The flowers of the Japanese privet are arranged in bunches along a single stem that is generally 5-8 inches (12-20 cm) long. The white flowers produce pollen that can be irritating to those with allergies. Generally, the flowers bloom in the spring and summer.
After the flowers have fallen, green berries develop. As they ripen, the color changes to black. The berries tend to stay on the branches through the fall and into early winter.
It is recommended to plant this shrub in soil that is slightly acidic and well-draining. Loamy or sandy soil is ideal for this type of plant. The area should receive adequate sunlight, but this shrub can tolerate partial shade. Also, it is recommended to plant this shrub at least 5 feet (1.5 m) from other shrubs to ensure robust growth.
If Japanese privets are grown too close together, the lack of adequate air circulation can foster the growth of sooty mold. Insects such as the whitefly damage the leaves and deposit a sticky residue called honeydew. Mold spores quickly multiply in the presence of honeydew, causing entire branches to be covered with a black sooty covering.