The US invaded Afghanistan. (2001) In response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the US launched the War in Afghanistan, also called Operation Enduring Freedom. The war's first phase targeted the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, with a goal of locating high-ranking terrorist leaders and putting them on trial for their crimes. Military operations expanded thereafter and are ongoing.
A military memo suggested that the US intentionally provoked Japan to attack Pearl Harbor. (1940) Until Pearl Harbor, US President Roosevelt was unable to get public support and Congressional approval for entering World War II, whether on the Pacific or European front. Many believe that Roosevelt was in on the intentional provocation of Japan for the purpose of inducing public and Congressional support for US involvement in the war. Support for this theory is argued to be found in a memo written about one year before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Arthur H. McCollum, a US military Lieutenant Commander and director of the Far East Asia naval intelligence office, sent the memo, known as the McCollum Memo, to two Navy Captains. The memo which proposes the provocation is said to have been met with agreement from many high-ranking military officials.
The US Stamp Act Congress convened in secret to detail the grievances the US colonies had against England. (1765) Nine of the 13 US colonies were represented at the proceedings, focusing on issues regarding admiralty courts, trial by jury, and self taxation. The group produced the Declaration of Rights and Grievances document and submitted it to the Lords in the House of Commons. The petition was one of the first official precursors that led to the American Revolution.
US President John F. Kennedy signed the Partial Test Ban Treaty. (1963) The treaty, which is also called Treaty banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The Atmosphere, In Outer Space And Under Water, banned all nuclear testing, with the exception of detonation underground. It also was signed by the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom. Today, most countries throughout the world have agreed to the treaty as well, with the notable exceptions of North Korea, China and France.
The Fox News Channel debuted. (1996) Fox News is owned by News Corporation, which also owns the Wall Street Journal newspaper. The channel broadcasts worldwide and has become one of the most-watched news channels.
The Ford Motor Company put the first moving assembly line into operation. (1913) The design Ford created was inspired by Henry Ford's observations of the production lines in meat-packing plants. The innovative process increased productivity to such an extent that the price of the Model-T dropped from $850 US Dollars (USD) to $360 USD.
Cornell University in New York opened its doors with record-setting enrollment. (1868) Founded by Andrew White and Ezra Cornell, the school's first class had 412 students — more than any other university in America at that time.
The Cats musical opened on Broadway, beginning its record run. (1982) The Broadway show was performed 7,485 times, a world performance record that has been surpassed only by The Phantom of the Opera.
The film-rating system was established by the Motion Picture Association of America. (1968) Movies were rated by movie-goers on rating boards before the system was put into place; the US government also had a rating board, but it was abolished after a US Supreme Court ruling in the Freedman v. Maryland case that said the government could approve films but not ban them.
The first commercial railway opened in the US. (1826) The Granite Railway traveled between quarries in Quincy, Massachusetts, and loading docks in Milton. The train transported granite.
The most one-sided football game in the history of US college football took place. (1916) Cumberland University was brutally defeated by Georgia Tech 222 to 0.