Wine laws are federal, state, and local laws that pertain to the making, distribution, and sale of wine. Many regions of the world implement wine laws to prevent fraud, in which winemakers or distributors engage in price gouging or other unfair practices. Wine laws will vary significantly by region, and such laws may include regulations as to which specific grapes can be used to make wines, how much water and land can be used for vineyards, what type of vehicles and machinery may be used on or near the vineyard property, and so on. The laws will vary according to what type of wine is being produced as well.
A good portion of the wine laws in the United States deal with labeling the wines correctly. Regional wines are regulated carefully to ensure that the grapes used to make the wine come from that area if the label says so. This is done by percentage: some states may require that the wine be made from 100% local vineyard grapes to be labeled a local wine, while other states may only require 85% or 75% local vineyard grapes. The same labeling laws may apply to the vintage year as well as the presence of sulfites in the wine. Most, if not all labels must include a warning about the dangers of alcohol. Such wine laws are not necessarily exclusive to the United States, either, though other countries tend to focus on different issues.
Some laws deal with dictating responsible practices for growing, harvesting, and distributing wines. In areas in which water is scarce, strict laws are often put in place to ensure vineyards are not using too much water, thereby depriving other parts of the region from a water source. Grapes do not generally require large amounts of water, but when a vineyard reaches a certain size, the impact on a given water supply can be significant.
Other wine laws may dictate where, when, and how a wine can be distributed. Some regions do not allow wines to be transported in certain ways or to certain areas, and a winemaker must determine how to transport the finished product legally and responsibly. In some cases, these laws are done to encourage an open market that avoids monopolies and other common pitfalls of commerce. Such laws may also prevent wine fraud, in which a particular seller engages in price gouging, mislabeling, or other dangerous practices.