Cervical bleeding can be caused by a number of things, some that are relatively benign, while others can be quite serious. If a woman experiences bleeding from her vagina at times other than during menstruation, she should seek medical attention immediately. Once a health care practitioner determines the source and cause of the bleeding, treatment can begin. Causes may include the growth of polyps or abnormal cells, miscarriage, or a sexually transmitted infection. Treatments include the removal of abnormal cells and growths, antibiotic treatment for infections, or even surgical options.
If a woman is pregnant and begins to experience cervical bleeding, she should contact her health care practitioner at once. While some women experience cervical bleeding during their pregnancies and go on to deliver healthy babies, bleeding can also indicate a miscarriage. In some cases, a woman will not require any type of medical treatment after a miscarriage, though in some situations a practitioner may need to perform a dilation and curettage to remove any retained tissue following a miscarriage. Women may also experience bleeding between periods due to their use of hormonal birth control or other menstrual irregularities and may likewise need to undergo the dilation and curettage procedure.
In some cases, a woman may develop cervical polyps or fibroid tumors, which are typically benign, but can be the cause of cervical bleeding. While polyps are usually no serious cause for concern, they can be removed via an outpatient procedure if necessary. On the other hand, cervical bleeding can be the result of cancer or precancerous conditions, so women should not make any assumptions about the cause of bleeding, but should seek medical advice. Regular pap smears can alert a woman and her doctor to any abnormal cells that may indicate cancer. If cancer is suspected, a biopsy can be performed.
Some sexually transmitted diseases result in vaginal bleeding, though the bleeding may not actually originate from the cervix. If a woman is sexually active, she should ask her health care practitioner to perform screenings for sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Both conditions can be treated with appropriate antibiotics.
Other causes of cervical bleeding can be stress, pre-menopause, or even thyroid problems. If a gynecologist or midwife is able to rule out some of the more common causes of bleeding, a woman may wish to undergo a thorough medical examination to determine if there are other issues that may contribute to this condition. Stress is often be managed with supportive counseling, while thyroid and other hormonal issues can be treated by an endocrinologist.