Stevia, one of many sugar substitutes on the market, is considered generally safe for consumption by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States. There are certain studies, however, that indicate some dangers of stevia. Those who are allergic to certain plants or suffer from diabetes or low blood pressure should exercise caution when consuming stevia. In otherwise healthy individuals, stevia may cause some undesirable side effects. There have also been some studies done on rats that indicate the plant could cause cancer or reduce fertility.
One of the dangers of stevia include an allergic reaction. This typically occurs in people who suffer from plant allergies, especially those sensitive to ragweed, daisies, and marigolds. Persons who experience reactions to these or any other plants should use caution when using stevia as an artificial sweetener and avoid any foods containing the plant if they've had a previous reaction.
Individuals suffering from diabetes should closely monitor their blood sugar levels if they've eaten anything containing stevia. Studies have found that this plant, in both raw and refined form, can react with several different blood sugar control medications and lower blood sugar. While research is not clear on these dangers of stevia, most doctors recommend diabetics limit the use of this plant.
Stevia may also react with some blood pressure medications in those with lower than normal blood pressure. This sugar substitute can cause a person's blood pressure to drop dangerously low. Known as hypotension, this health issue can result in dizziness, weakness, exhaustion, and episodes of fainting.
There may also be some dangers of stevia in otherwise healthy individuals. Some people have reported feeling overly full or bloated after consuming products containing this artificial sweetener. Nausea is also a common complaint, as is muscle pain and weakness.
Since the early 2000s, researchers have been looking into other potential dangers of stevia. In some studies, the artificial sweetener has been found to cause cancer in healthy laboratory rats. The same results have not been found in studies done on humans, however. While stevia has been consumed in several countries for hundreds of years, there have been no long-term studies done on the link between cancer and stevia; as with most things, moderation is typically suggested when consuming stevia.
In other studies, chronic high intake of stevia has been found to reduce sperm count and mobility in male rats and hinder the ability of female rats to become pregnant. As with the cancer studies, the same results have not been found in humans. Some researchers have, however, found evidence that stevia was used as a contraceptive in ancient times. While stevia is considered relatively safe for the majority of the population, most researchers and doctors do not suggest heavy, frequent consumption of the plant or foods containing it.