There are many different brain damage symptoms. Some are caused by irreversible brain damage, while others can be short-term symptoms caused by disease or brain trauma. Medical professionals break down these symptoms into four categories: behavioral/emotional, cognitive, perceptual, and physical.
Behavioral and emotional brain damage symptoms can include a wide variety of abnormal behavior changes. These may include sudden mood swings and irritability, a lack of patience, and heightened emotions and responses. Some people with emotional and behavioral brain damage may also become aggressive easily. Usually people suffering from behavioral symptoms of brain damage will deny that they feel any different as well.
Cognitive symptoms of brain damage affect how a person processes and understands her surroundings. These symptoms of brain damage may include a trouble in expressing one's thoughts, a hard time understanding other people, and a difficulty with making decisions, especially if they involve abstract concepts. Attention span and memory loss may also occur.
Perceptual brain damage symptoms change how a person perceives things around him and can alter how they taste, smell, or touch things. Some people may be more sensitive to pain, while others may become less sensitive. An inability to tell time or make sense of what is around a person are other symptoms of perceptual damage.
Some of the most obvious brain damage symptoms are the physical ones. These symptoms can range wildly and may include extreme mental and physical fatigue, seizures, and lapses into unconsciousness. Other physical brain damage symptoms can include headaches, paralysis, or seizures.
Symptoms of brain damage can occur quickly after a head injury or brain trauma like a fall on the head or car accident. Other times they may not manifest themselves for several hours or days. Owing to this possible delay in the appearance of symptoms, most doctors and medical professionals recommend that people seek treatment immediately after any sort of brain trauma just to be sure.
Doctors can usually diagnose brain damage by performing CT scans, x-rays, and other imaging tests. A doctor may also perform a reflex or cognitive test to see if brain activity has been affected in any way. If brain damage has been found, then there are several options. In some cases, surgery may be performed to relieve pressure on the brain, which may help ease the symptoms of the brain damage or at the very least limit the chance of it getting worse. In cases of severe, long-term brain damage that is irreversible, treatment to help work past the damage, such as speech or physical therapy, is usually needed.