Just like the name suggests, earth science refers to a branch of science that primarily deals with issues relating to the earth. As such, earth science programs include those areas of study that are related to or concerned with the tangible attributes of the earth. The earth science programs include geology as well as soil science. Other earth science programs include geography and oceanography as well as the study of atmospheric sciences.
An inclusion in earth science programs is geology, a field of study that is based on the concentrated analysis of the rocky aspects of the planet, including the various components and minerals that make up the identified rocks. This is due to the fact that the location of the rocks as well as other factors contribute to the composition of the rocks. As such, rocks that were formed in areas once underwater have peculiar characteristics that differentiate them from other rocks that may have been formed from volcanoes or other types of physical conditions. It is through the science of geology that the geologists can make an educated or calculated estimation regarding not only the components of the rock. They can also tell from other signs and characteristics of the rocks the kind of environmental condition that existed in the area at the time, which helps shed more light on the kinds of conditions that existed long ago.
Oceanography is another inclusion in earth science programs that is targeted toward the understanding of the marine ecosystem, including the various components that make up the ecosystem. Such components include the study of the various organisms that inhabit the ecosystem. This comes as a consequence of the fact that some creatures can survive in marine or saltwater habitats, while others can only survive in freshwater habitats — though others are able to survive in either habitats. Other features studied under this branch of earth science is the behavior of water in this ecosystem as well as the components of the water, including the salinity levels.
Atmospheric sciences is a branch of earth science programs that is more concerned with issues related to the atmosphere. Meteorology is a subfield under this science that deals with issues related to the weather and its behavior. It is this subfield that makes it possible for meteorologists to study weather patterns and make accurate predictions regarding the future condition of the weather.