There are two main cupcake frosting techniques. One is to use a frosting knife to spread the frosting over the top of the cupcake. The other is to fill a piping bag with frosting and to squeeze the frosting out onto the cupcake. Though either method will effectively cover a cupcake in frosting, using a knife is easier and requires less frosting while using a piping bag allows a baker to create fancy swirls and decorations, such as flowers. Different techniques must be used to put frosting inside a cupcake.
The simplest of the cupcake frosting techniques is to spread frosting over the top of a cupcake. Though there is a specialized tool, known as a frosting knife, that is designed for this task, a butter knife can also be used. A frosting knife is usually preferred because it has a wide, flat end that can spread the frosting around evenly. Using this technique, a baker scoops some frosting onto the knife, turns it out onto the cupcake and then spreads the frosting around until the entire top of the cupcake is frosted.
It is also possible to use a piping bag to frost cupcakes. The frosting must be placed in a bag with a tip that presses the frosting into the desired shape. While any bag can be used, including a simple plastic bag, using a proper piping tip makes the frosted cupcake look neater. The frosting is squeezed out onto the top of the cupcake, usually in the form of a swirl, though any shape can be made out of the frosting and a variety of different colors can be used to make intricate designs.
There are also cupcake frosting techniques that allow a person to insert frosting into the middle of a cupcake. In most cases, a hole is cut from the top of the cupcake into the middle. A piping bag, frosting knife, or spoon can then be used to fill the middle of the cupcake with frosting before the top is frosted, hiding the damaged section. It is also possible to use a thin piping tip to inject frosting into the center of a cupcake, though care needs to be taken not to fill a cupcake with so much frosting that it falls apart.