The connections between art and theology go back to the earliest known eras of human history. Some of the oldest surviving art pieces are believed to be representations of deities. Many early cultures depicted scenes involving gods and other spiritual figures in their art. In medieval Europe, the connection between art and theology produced some of the world’s most beloved masterpieces. Even cultures that forbid artistic depictions of revered figures, such as some Islamic sects, have established their own traditions of religious art.
It is thought that many prehistoric cave paintings, carvings, and sculptures represent deities or religious figures such as shamans. This establishes a link between art and theology at the very dawn of human culture. Religious artifacts and artwork depicting religious subjects have been discovered at archaeological sites around the world. The civilizations of ancient Greece provided many examples of high sophistication and beauty. Greek statuary and vases often portrayed gods and goddesses; the Parthenon and other Greek temples set new standards for architecture.
In Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the Christian church was wealthy and powerful. Many of the greatest artists in history produced religious-themed art during this time, including Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Leonardo da Vinci. This connection between art and theology had a lasting influence on various art forms. The idea of perspective, creating the illusion of depth on a flat surface, was pioneered with an Italian church painting, the Trinity Fresco by Masacchio. Theological works of literature included illuminated manuscripts and Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced books.
The cultures of the Far East also feature strong links between art and theology. The Hindu gods of India are represented in sculptures and paintings as well as icons such as the lingam, a pillar-like symbol of the god Shiva. Angkor Wat in Cambodia is one of many Asian temples elaborately decorated with religious figures from Hinduism. Buddhist art has also had a wide influence, appearing throughout Asia from India to Japan. Buddhist and Taoist principles are represented in landscape paintings and rock gardens in Japan and China.
Some Islamic traditions have a well-known aversion to art that portrays living beings, religious or otherwise, because of strong precepts against idolatry. As a result, Islamic art turned to non-representational forms, such as calligraphy. Even with these limitations, the links between art and theology remained important. Mosques and palaces such as the Alhambra in Spain are decorated with complex mosaics and intricate carvings called arabesques. The elaborate mosaics in Istanbul’s “Blue Mosque,” for example, were created by hand with more than 20,000 individual tiles.