The tonsils are small masses of tissue found at either side of the throat. While normally, the tonsils help the body keep unwanted infections at bay, sometimes they become swollen and painful. Common causes of swollen tonsils include viral infections such as colds and bacterial infections such as strep throat. Less commonly, enlarged tonsils may be caused by allergies or exposure to an environmental irritant. If an individual’s tonsils become infected regularly, a physician may recommend their removal.
Perhaps the most common cause of swollen tonsils is infection, also known as tonsillitis. Along with enlargement of the tonsils, tonsillitis may also cause such symptoms as throat pain, fever, and fatigue. Despite the fact that the symptoms of tonsillitis tend to be fairly similar from case to case, these symptoms can be caused by several different types of infection.
Many times, enlarged tonsils are caused by a viral infection. Common culprits include colds, influenza, and mononucleosis. Unfortunately, viral infections typically do not respond to antibiotic treatment. Therefore, those suffering from tonsil swelling caused by a virus usually must simply wait for the virus to leave the body. Over-the-counter painkillers and hot liquids such as tea and broth may help make the discomfort of a viral tonsil infection more bearable.
Another fairly common cause of swollen tonsils is bacterial infection. One of the most prevalent types of bacterial tonsillitis is strep throat. This type of infection, caused by streptococcus bacteria, is highly contagious and can be extremely painful. If a doctor identifies strep throat as the cause of a patient’s swollen tonsils, she may prescribe antibiotics to shorten the duration of the infection and curb its contagion.
Less commonly, enlarged tonsils may be caused by allergies, or by exposure to an environmental irritant such as cigarette smoke. In this case, removing oneself from the source of the reaction may be all that is needed to end swelling. If the tonsils are swollen enough to inhibit breathing, however, a physician should be consulted immediately to rule out a serious allergic response.
Some individuals seem to be especially susceptible to swollen tonsils. If a patient regularly develops throat infections, his physician may recommend that he have his tonsils surgically removed, an outpatient procedure known as a tonsillectomy. By eliminating the tonsils, a tonsillectomy can significantly reduce the occurrence of throat infections as well as the unpleasant symptoms that usually accompany them.