Correctly tuning a banjo is one of the most important steps in properly playing the instrument. One of the most important factors to remember is that the most common tuning for a banjo is in the G key. Prior to tuning a banjo, it is important to obtain a tuning pipe, fork or electronic tuner to properly establish the key in which to base the tuning from. Another tip is to continually pick or pluck the string that is being tuned while tuning the peg head. For players uncertain about the proper pitch, it is best to stop well short of the desired tuning when tuning a banjo, as this will avoid broken strings resulting from over-tightening.
While many alternate tuning scenarios present themselves when playing any style of music, the typical and recognized key when tuning a banjo is the key of G. This tuning on a standard five-string banjo, from the top or the shortest string on the banjo to bottom string, is G D G B D. These tunings are done with the strings in the open position or while not pressing down on the string that is being tuned. Another tip while tuning a banjo is to muffle the strings not being tuned with the picking hand. This will aid in eliminating any unwanted string vibration from interfering with the ability to hear the string that is being tuned.
In order to avoid breaking strings from over-tightening and to aid in the development of identifying the proper pitch, the string should be picked continually while tightening or loosening the tuning peg. This will allow the pitch of the string to be heard while it is constantly changing from a low to a high pitch as it is tightened. It is also best to never leave a string tuned after the pitch has been reached by loosening it. When the proper pitch has been reached, it is always best to de-tune slightly and then bring the string back to pitch as it is being tightened.
An important tip for tuning a banjo, especially when playing with other instruments in a band, is to compare the tuning with another instrument. Tolerances in manufacturing and other issues can leave two identically tuned instruments an octave or more apart when compared to each other. This can be accomplished once tuning a banjo is completed by simply comparing the picked strings against those of another instrument. This process is often used as the final step in tuning a banjo.